Strong quantum computational advantage using a superconducting quantum processor (pdf)

Scaling up to a large number of qubits with high-precision control is essential in the demonstrations of quan- tum computational advantage to exponentially outpace the classical hardware and algorithmic improvements. Here, we develop a two-dimensional programmable superconducting quantum processor, Zuchongzhi, which is composed of 66 functional qubits in a tunable coupling architecture. To characterize the performance of the whole system, we perform random quantum circuits sampling for benchmarking, up to a system size of 56 qubits and 20 cycles. The computational cost of the classical simulation of this task is estimated to be 2-3 or- ders of magnitude higher than the previous work on 53-qubit Sycamore processor [Nature 574, 505 (2019)]. We estimate that the sampling task finished by Zuchongzhi in about 1.2 hours will take the most powerful supercom- puter at least 8 years. Our work establishes an unambiguous quantum computational advantage that is infeasible for classical computation in a reasonable amount of time. The high-precision and programmable quantum com- puting platform opens a new door to explore novel many-body phenomena and implement complex quantum algorithms.

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